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73- The Secret Alliance

Episode Link

In order to bring down Athanasius, Eusebius of Nicomedia forms a clandestine alliance with the Meletians…

Actual footage of Eusebius of Nicomedia forming an alliance with the Meletians (colorized).

Christos anesti 2021!

Christos anesti to all my Eastern listeners!

72- Athanasius: The Early Years

Episode Link

In the year 328, the young deacon Athanasius became the new bishop of Alexandria after a highly contested election. His early years on the throne of Saint Mark saw continuing conflict with the Meletians and Eusebians, as well as the composition of his most famous theological treatise…

Be sure to check out Warlords of History by Mark Pimenta!

Greek Icon of Athanasius of Alexandria

Primary Sources

Primary Sources – Ecclesiastical Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Socrates of Constantinople 
  • Sozomen 
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Anatolios, Khaled
    • Athanasius
    • Athanasius: The Coherence of his Thought
  • Arnold, Duane W. H. 
    • The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria
  • Barnes, Timothy
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
  • Brakke, David
    • Athanasius and Asceticism
  • DelCogliano, Mark
    • “The Emergence of the Pro-Nicene Alliance”. Ch. 12 of The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea ed. Kim, Young Richard
  • Gwynn, David M. 
    • Athanasius of Alexandria: Bishop, Theologian, Ascetic, Father
  • Keating, Daniel A. 
    • Athanasius and his Legacy: Trinitarian-Incarnational Soteriology and its Reception
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
    • “The Reception of Nicaea and Homoousios to 360”. Ch. 11 of The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea ed. Kim, Young Richard
  • Tyson, John R. 
    • The Great Athanasius: An Introduction to his Life and Work
  • Weinandy, Thomas G. 
    • Athanasius: A Theological Introduction

Happy Easter 2021!

Happy Easter to all my western listeners!

71- The Eusebians Strike Back

Episode Link

Despite their defeat at the Council of Nicaea, the allies of Arius begin to mount a successful comeback. Within the span of only a few years, they manage to bring down the bishop of Antioch and return their partisans from exile.

Greek Icon of Eustathius of Antioch.
johnsanidopoulos.com

Primary Sources

Primary Sources – Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Ayres, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theological Politics in the Constantinian Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Cartwright, Sophie
    • The Theological Anthropology of Eustathius of Antioch
  • Hanson, Richard P. C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.

70- An Imperial Pilgrimage

Episode Link

After a dynastic tragedy rocks the imperial family, Constantine’s mother Helena undertakes a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. A pilgrimage which will become the stuff of legends…

You can find The History of North American podcast by Mark Vinet here!

Primary Sources

  • Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Res Gestae
  • Aurelius Victor
    • De Caesaribus
  • Constantine 
    • Letter to Macarius on Mamre
    • Letter to Macarius on the Holy Sepulcher
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Life of Constantine
    • Oration on the Holy Sepulcher
  • Eutropius
    • Brevarium
  • Socrates of Constantinople
    • Ecclesiastical History
  • Zosimus
    • New History

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed.
  • Potter, David
    • Constantine the Emperor
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
  • Woods, David
    • “On the Death of the Empress Fausta.” Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser. Vol. 45, No. 1. (Apr., 1998), pp. 70-86.
  • Yarnold, Edward
    • Cyril of Jerusalem (Routledge Early Church Fathers)
Solidus of Crispus.
(c)2005 by Classical Numismatic Group Inc., cngcoins.com. Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 unported.
Bust of Fausta.
Photo by Mbzt (c) 2012. Source: Wikipedia.
Creative Commons Attirbution License 3.0 unported.
Roman Statue of Helena Augusta
Greek Icon of the Exhalation of the Holy Cross. Macarius of Jerusalem (center) and the Empress Helena (bottom-left).
johnsanidopoulos.com
15th Century Oil of Painting: Saint Helena
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista: 1495; in the collection of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Helena

69- The Council of Nicaea Part II

Episode Link

With the controversy over Arius addressed, the Council of Nicaea proceeds on to the remainder of its agenda. From the date of Easter to the Meletian schism, there were numerous other issues facing the early Church…

You can find more information about the council here.

Primary Sources I

Primary Sources II: Later Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Pseudo-Gelasius of Cyzicus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Drake, Harold A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Hanson, Richard P. C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • L’Huillier, Peter
    • The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Greek Icon of the Council of Nicaea
Greek Icon of the Nicene Creed held by the emperor Constantine (center) and the council fathers.
16th Century Fresco depicting the Council of Nicaea from the Sistine Chapel.
Bust of Constantine the Great
English Icon of Alexander of Alexandria
Ossius (Hosius) of Cordoba
Spyridon of Trimythous
Mural depicting the apocryphal story of Nicholas of Myra striking Arius

68- The Council of Nicaea Part I

Episode Link

The emperor Constantine convokes the largest council yet in the history of the early Church to settle the controversy over Arius once and for all…

You can find more information about the council here.

Primary Sources I

Primary Sources II: Later Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Pseudo-Gelasius of Cyzicus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Drake, Harold A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Hanson, Richard P. C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • L’Huillier, Peter
    • The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Greek Icon of the Council of Nicaea
Greek Icon of the Nicene Creed held by the emperor Constantine (center) and the council fathers.
16th Century Fresco depicting the Council of Nicaea from the Sistine Chapel.
Bust of Constantine the Great
English Icon of Alexander of Alexandria
Ossius (Hosius) of Cordoba
Spyridon of Trimythous
Mural depicting the apocryphal story of Nicholas of Myra striking Arius

67- One Emperor, One God

Episode Link

With his victory over Licinius, Constantine became sole master of the Roman world. The emperor’s vision of a Christian empire however is soon undermined by the controversy over Arius.

Primary Sources

  • Alexander of Alexandria 
    • Henos somatos 
  • Anonymous Velasianus
    • Origin of the Emperor Constantine
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Constantine
    • Letter to the Provincials of Palestine 
    • Letter to Eusebius on Church Building
    • Letter to the Provincials of the East
    • Letter to Alexander and Arius
    • Oration to the the Saints
    • Letter Summoning the Council of Nicaea
  • Council of Antioch (325)
    • Conciliar Letter of the Council of Antioch
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Church History
    • Life of Constantine trans. and commentary by Averil Cameron and Stuart Hall
  • Lactantius
    • Divine Institutes
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
    • Church History
  • Socrates of Constantinople
    • Church History
  • Sozomen
    • Church History
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus
    • Church History

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Cartwright, Sophie
    • The Theological Anthropology of Eustathius of Antioch
  • Corcoran, Simon
    • The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government AD 284-324 Rev. Ed.
  • Drake, H. A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Errington, R. Malcolm
    • “Constantine and the Pagans.” Philipps-Universirar, Marburg. November, 1988.
  • Hanson, Richard
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 2012. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Paul
    • “Constantine’s Letter to Arius and Alexander?” Studia Patristica XXXIX. 89-95. 2006. 
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Copper follis of Constantine wearing a laurel crown from c. 324 A.D. The obverse depicts the Labarum standard crushing a serpent.
The three circles on the banner represent the imperial portraits of Constantine and his sons the Caesars Crispus and Constantine II
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license

New Years Update

Hello Listeners,

Hope you all had a merry Christmas and happy New Year. Looking back I think 2020 was a good year for the podcast and certainly the most productive one I’ve had so far. I’ve taken a small break the past couple weeks due to grad school, family, and the holidays. Now that its 2021 however, you will soon see new episodes hitting the feed. Thank you all for supporting the show and I look forward to reading your feedback!

Sincerely,

TY