Skip to content

78- Return of the Exiles

Episode Link

Following the death of Constantine, a short dynastic bloodbath occurs, after which his sons divide the empire between themselves. In addition, the new emperors also permit all the eastern bishops exiled by their father to return. As a result violent clashes soon erupt between rival Christian congregations in many Eastern cities. Nevertheless Athanasius begins building up his own alliance to counteract the Eusebians… 

Greek Icon of Paul of Constantinople

Taken from page 338 of The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and Julian. Ed. Nicholas Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher. Palgrave Macmillan. May 31, 2020. Kindle Edition.

Primary Sources

  • Athanasius of Alexandria
    • Apology Against the Arians
    • History of the Arians
  • Aurelius Victor
    • On the Caesars
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Life of Constantine
  • Eutropius
    • Brevarium
  • Festus
    • Brevarium
  • Hilary of Poitiers
    • Fragmentary History Against Ursacius and Valens

Primary Sources – Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire
  • Burges, Richard
    • “The Summer of Blood: The “Great Massacre of 337 and the promotion of the sons of Constantine.”Dumbarton Oaks Papers lxii (2008), pp. 5–51.
  • Galvao-Sobrinho, Carlos R.
    • Doctrine and Power: Theological Controversy and Christian Leadership in the Later Roman Empire
  • Haas, Christopher
    • Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict
  • Hanson, Richard
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy AD 318-381
  • Harries, Jill
    • Imperial Rome AD 284 to 363: The New Empire
  • Kim, Young Richard
    • The Cambridge Companion the Council of Nicaea
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed.
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed. 
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy

Feed Issue Resolved

Hello everyone. The problems with the feed appear to be resolved now. If you are still encountering problems please send me a message.

Thanks,
TY

Troubles with the Feed

Hi all,

I know a number of you are having issues with the feed and streaming or downloading episodes. Podomatic has informed me that they’ve found a fix for the issue and are rolling it out presently.

Regards,

TY

77- Retrospective on Constantine

Episode Link

In this episode we look back on the reign of Constantine the Great and his impact on the early Church. I also answer the various questions you’ve all submitted on the emperor and the Church during his reign.

Link to Constantine’s Oration to the Saints

Link to a more recent translation by Edwards

Slavonic Icon of Constantine

Update Summer 2021

Hi all, just wanted to give a quick update on what’s going on with the podcast.

First, I’ve been receiving a steady trickle of excellent questions related to Constantine and so I want to make sure everyone has time to get them in and I have time to research them.

Second, the more I dig into the two decades after Constantine’s death the more complex and messy the story gets, especially the trials and tribulations of Athanasius. I’ve already written some of the scripts for these episodes and I want to make sure I don’t make any mistakes.

Third, my personal life has been a bit busier lately. Most notably my summer term of grad school is reaching its end which means research, final projects and assignments, etc.

Fear not. We are still on track to continue the narrative well past the reign of Constantine. I will keep you all posted on future developments. My plan currently is to have the next episode released by mid-late August.

Thank you all for your patience and continued support,


TY

Still time to send in your Constantine questions!

Don’t wait! There’s still time to get your Constantine questions in. Let me know anything related to Constantine and his relationship with the early Church you’d like me to discuss in the upcoming episode.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano, 1524


Thx,
TY

Send in your Constantine Questions

Don’t forget to send in all your Constantine-related questions!

You can send in your questions by commenting on this post or emailing HistoryoftheEarlyChurch@gmail.com.

Head from Colossus of Constatntine in Rome. Photo by Camille King via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic License.

76- Caesar Baptized

Episode Link

We conclude our coverage of the reign of the first Christian Roman Emperor. I close this episode by asking you dear listeners to please send in your questions about Constantine and the early Church.

Primary Sources

  • Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Res Gestae
  • Anna Komnene
    • Alexiad
  • Anonymous Velasianus
    • Origin of the Emperor Constantine
  • Aurelius Victor
    • On the Caesars
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Constantine
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Life of Constantine
    • Oration of Praise to Constantine
  • Eutropius
    • Brevarium
  • Eutychius of Alexandria
    • Annals
  • Festus
    • Brevarium
  • Itinerarium Burdigalense
  • John Malalas
    • Chronography
  • Pseudo-Codinus
    • Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum
  • Tabula Peutingeriana 
  • John Zonaras
    • History
  • Zosimus
    • New History

Primary Sources – Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Nikephoros Kallistos
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
  • Drake, Harold
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Fowden, Garth
    • “Constantine’s Porphyry Column: The Earliest Literary Allusion.” The Journal of Roman Studies, 1991, Vol. 81. 119-131
    • “The Last Days of Constantine.” The Journal of Roman Studies, 1994, Vol. 84, 146-170
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed.
    • Constantine and the Cities: Imperial Authority and Civil Politics
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed.
  • Potter, David
    • “Constantine and the Gladiators.” Classical Quarterly 60.2 596–606 (2010) Printed in Great Britain
  • Smith, Kyle
    • Constantine and the Captive Christians of Perisa
  • Stemberger, Günter
    • Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the Fourth Century
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
The Death of Constantine by Peter Paul Rubens
One of Constantine’s “Prayer Pose” coins
Constantinople. From Charles Odahl’s Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed. 233. Routledge Press. 2010. Digital. Not all the buildings depicted date from the time of Constantine. Later additions include the Theodosians Walls, the Aqueduct of Valens, and the Church of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).
Constantinople in the Byzantine Period by C. Plakitas. 28 October 2008. Wikipedia. Licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2. Not many of the buildings depicted date from the time of Constantine.
The Column of Constantine in modern-day Istanbul. Photo by Bollweevil. 3 August 2013. Wikipedia. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Unported.
The present-day Church of Holy Peace (Hagia Irene) in Istanbul
Constantine’s Succession Plan/Tetrarchy. From Charles Odahl’s Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed. 266. Routledge Press. 2010. Digital.
Stemmata of the Constantinian Dynasty

75- The Freak Hemorrhage

Episode Link

With Athanasius finally exiled, the Eusebians turn their attention against their other hated foe, Marcellus of Ancyra…

Death of Arius
Greek Icon of Alexander of Constantinople

Primary Sources

  • Asterius the Sophist
    • In Defense of Eusebius
  • Athanasius
    • Apology Against the Arians
    • History of the Arians 
    • Letter to Serapion on the Death of Arius
  • Council of Antioch (341)
    • Creed of Lucian (Second Creed of Antioch)
  • Marcellus of Ancyra
    • Against Asterius
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Against Marcellus
    • Ecclesiastical Theology
    • Life of Constantine

Secondary Sources

  • Ayres, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • “Emperors and Bishops of Constantinople (324–431).”
    • “The Exile and Recalls of Arius.”
  • Lienhard, Joseph T.
    • Contra Marcellum: Marcellus of Ancyra and Fourth-Century Theology
  • Hanson, Richard
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: History and Tradition Rev. Ed.

74- Egyptian Grain

Episode Link

The conflict between Athanasius and the Meletian-Eusebian alliance comes to a head at the Council of Tyre…