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70- An Imperial Pilgrimage

Episode Link

After a dynastic tragedy rocks the imperial family, Constantine’s mother Helena undertakes a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. A pilgrimage which will become the stuff of legends…

You can find The History of North American podcast by Mark Vinet here!

Primary Sources

  • Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Res Gestae
  • Aurelius Victor
    • De Caesaribus
  • Constantine 
    • Letter to Macarius on Mamre
    • Letter to Macarius on the Holy Sepulcher
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Life of Constantine
    • Oration on the Holy Sepulcher
  • Eutropius
    • Brevarium
  • Socrates of Constantinople
    • Ecclesiastical History
  • Zosimus
    • New History

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed.
  • Potter, David
    • Constantine the Emperor
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
  • Woods, David
    • “On the Death of the Empress Fausta.” Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser. Vol. 45, No. 1. (Apr., 1998), pp. 70-86.
  • Yarnold, Edward
    • Cyril of Jerusalem (Routledge Early Church Fathers)
Solidus of Crispus.
(c)2005 by Classical Numismatic Group Inc., cngcoins.com. Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 unported.
Bust of Fausta.
Photo by Mbzt (c) 2012. Source: Wikipedia.
Creative Commons Attirbution License 3.0 unported.
Roman Statue of Helena Augusta
Greek Icon of the Exhalation of the Holy Cross. Macarius of Jerusalem (center) and the Empress Helena (bottom-left).
johnsanidopoulos.com
15th Century Oil of Painting: Saint Helena
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista: 1495; in the collection of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Helena

69- The Council of Nicaea Part II

Episode Link

With the controversy over Arius addressed, the Council of Nicaea proceeds on to the remainder of its agenda. From the date of Easter to the Meletian schism, there were numerous other issues facing the early Church…

You can find more information about the council here.

Primary Sources I

Primary Sources II: Later Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Pseudo-Gelasius of Cyzicus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Drake, Harold A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Hanson, Richard P. C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • L’Huillier, Peter
    • The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Greek Icon of the Council of Nicaea
Greek Icon of the Nicene Creed held by the emperor Constantine (center) and the council fathers.
16th Century Fresco depicting the Council of Nicaea from the Sistine Chapel.
Bust of Constantine the Great
English Icon of Alexander of Alexandria
Ossius (Hosius) of Cordoba
Spyridon of Trimythous
Mural depicting the apocryphal story of Nicholas of Myra striking Arius

68- The Council of Nicaea Part I

Episode Link

The emperor Constantine convokes the largest council yet in the history of the early Church to settle the controversy over Arius once and for all…

You can find more information about the council here.

Primary Sources I

Primary Sources II: Later Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Pseudo-Gelasius of Cyzicus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Drake, Harold A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Hanson, Richard P. C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • L’Huillier, Peter
    • The Church of the Ancient Councils: The Disciplinary Work of the First Four Ecumenical Councils
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Greek Icon of the Council of Nicaea
Greek Icon of the Nicene Creed held by the emperor Constantine (center) and the council fathers.
16th Century Fresco depicting the Council of Nicaea from the Sistine Chapel.
Bust of Constantine the Great
English Icon of Alexander of Alexandria
Ossius (Hosius) of Cordoba
Spyridon of Trimythous
Mural depicting the apocryphal story of Nicholas of Myra striking Arius

67- One Emperor, One God

Episode Link

With his victory over Licinius, Constantine became sole master of the Roman world. The emperor’s vision of a Christian empire however is soon undermined by the controversy over Arius.

Primary Sources

  • Alexander of Alexandria 
    • Henos somatos 
  • Anonymous Velasianus
    • Origin of the Emperor Constantine
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Constantine
    • Letter to the Provincials of Palestine 
    • Letter to Eusebius on Church Building
    • Letter to the Provincials of the East
    • Letter to Alexander and Arius
    • Oration to the the Saints
    • Letter Summoning the Council of Nicaea
  • Council of Antioch (325)
    • Conciliar Letter of the Council of Antioch
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Church History
    • Life of Constantine trans. and commentary by Averil Cameron and Stuart Hall
  • Lactantius
    • Divine Institutes
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
    • Church History
  • Socrates of Constantinople
    • Church History
  • Sozomen
    • Church History
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus
    • Church History

Secondary Sources

  • Ayers, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitrian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Cartwright, Sophie
    • The Theological Anthropology of Eustathius of Antioch
  • Corcoran, Simon
    • The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government AD 284-324 Rev. Ed.
  • Drake, H. A.
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Errington, R. Malcolm
    • “Constantine and the Pagans.” Philipps-Universirar, Marburg. November, 1988.
  • Hanson, Richard
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381 
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 2012. 
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire 2nd Ed.
  • Parvis, Paul
    • “Constantine’s Letter to Arius and Alexander?” Studia Patristica XXXIX. 89-95. 2006. 
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition Rev. Ed.
Copper follis of Constantine wearing a laurel crown from c. 324 A.D. The obverse depicts the Labarum standard crushing a serpent.
The three circles on the banner represent the imperial portraits of Constantine and his sons the Caesars Crispus and Constantine II
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license

New Years Update

Hello Listeners,

Hope you all had a merry Christmas and happy New Year. Looking back I think 2020 was a good year for the podcast and certainly the most productive one I’ve had so far. I’ve taken a small break the past couple weeks due to grad school, family, and the holidays. Now that its 2021 however, you will soon see new episodes hitting the feed. Thank you all for supporting the show and I look forward to reading your feedback!

Sincerely,

TY

66- The Last Persecution

Episode Link

After falling out with Constantine, the eastern emperor Licinius turns against his Christian subjects…

Primary Sources

  • Anonymous Valesianus I
    • Origin of the Emperor Constantine
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Church History
    • Life of Constantine

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
    • Early Christian Hagiography and Roman History
    • The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire, 2nd Ed.
  • Lenski, Noel
    • “The Reign of Constantine.” Ch. 3. 59-90. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed. 2012. Ed. Lenski, Noel.
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
Bust of Licinius
Greek Icon of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste
Icon of Basil of Amaseia
Gold Coin of Licinius and his son
Tapestry showing the Sea Battle between the Fleets of Constantine and Licinius.
Pietro da Cortona, 1635
Map of the Second War between Constantine and Licinius.
From Weigal, Richard. De Imperatoribus Romanis. 20 November 2004. Web. http://www.roman-emperors.org/ahbc324.jpg.

65- When the Son was Not

Episode Link

The bishop of Alexandria expounds on the relationship between God the Father and the Son. However, the presbyter Arius reacts strongly against this theology. Soon the dispute between the two men sets the eastern churches ablaze with the fires of controversy. A controversy which will come to dominate the history of the early Church for the rest of the century…

Key Persons Mentioned in this episode:

  • Major Supporters of Arius
    • Libya
      • Secundus of Ptolemais
      • Theonas of Marmarica
    • Bithynia
      • Eusebius of Nicomedia
      • Theognis of Nicaea
      • Maris of Chalcedon
    • Syro-Palestine
      • Eusebius of Caesarea
      • Theodotus of Laodicea
      • Paulinus of Tyre
      • Patrophilus of Scythopolis
    • Other
      • Asterius the Sophist/of Cappadocia
  • Major Opponents of Arius
    • Alexander of Alexandria
    • Philogonius of Antioch

See here and here for Ross Twele’s excellent summary and review of the early Arian Controversy chronologies

See here for translations of the primary sources involved as well as more chronological charts of the early controversy

Secondary Sources

  • Ayres, Lewis
    • Nicaea and Its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
  • Behr, John
    • The Nicene Faith (Formation of Christian Theology Vol. 2)
  • Hanson, Richard P.C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy 318-381
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy: 325 to 345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: Heresy and Tradition. Rev. Ed.
Detail of Arius from The Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas over the Heretics. Sailko. Wikipedia. 11 February 2014. Modified. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. Web.
Alexander of Alexandria, johnsanidopoulos.com

64- The Road to Arius

Episode Link

In this episode we examine the immediate background to the Arian Controversy by surveying the theological climate of the Greek East in the late third and early fourth centuries.

Primary Sources

  • Methodius of Olympus
    • On the Resurrection
    • Xeno: On Created Things
  • Origen of Alexandria
    • On First Principles
  • Pamphilus of Caesarea
    • Apology for Origen

Secondary Sources

  • Ayres, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology
  • Behr, John
    • The Nicene Faith: The Formation of Christian Theology Volume 2
    • The Way to Nicaea: The Formation of Christian Theology Volume 1
  • Hanson, Richard P.C.
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318-381
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: History and Tradition. Rev. Ed.
Origen of Alexandria
Methodius of Olympus, johnsanidopoulos.com
Lucian of Antioch, johnsanidopoulos.com
Pamphilus of Caesarea, johnsanidopoulos.com

October 2020 Update

Hello listeners, just a quick update on what’s going on with the podcast.

First, I stated in our last episode I would be taking some time to complete further research before the next batch of episodes is released. That time is now complete and so new episodes will start releasing this week.

Second, I’m sure many of you have noticed the podcast music change. Don’t worry nothing negative has happened to the show. This was a decision I made on my own initiative for the future of the podcast. The music in question is “Sons of Constantinople” by Tyler Cunningham and licensed under Pond5. Tyler Cunningham has produced a lot of excellent ancient and medieval themed soundtracks and you can find many of them, and other royalty free music, at Pond5.com.

Third, because of the music change it will take some time for me to get the episodes re-uploaded to YouTube. Right now my main focus is on the podcast audio RSS feed and so I want to finish updating that first.

That’s all for now. As always thank you for listening!

–TY

63- Introducing the Arian Controversy with Ross Twele

Episode Link

In today’s episode we have an interview with Ross Twele. Ross is a Ph.D. student who specializes in the great fourth century theological controversy known as the “Arian Controversy.” The Arian Controversy centered around the relationship between the Father and the Son, and will dominate much of our narrative for the rest of the century. This episode will serve as our introduction to this complex and multifaceted period.

You can find Ross’s blog site The Unsolved Puzzle here. I highly recommend all of you check it out. Ross has some excellent content on his site directly relevant to our podcast, and his material has been of great help to me in my research.

Ross Twele
Mural depicting Nicholas of Myra (left), a.k.a Santa Claus, striking Arius of Alexandria (right) at the Council of Nicaea in 325.