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Update Summer 2021

Hi all, just wanted to give a quick update on what’s going on with the podcast.

First, I’ve been receiving a steady trickle of excellent questions related to Constantine and so I want to make sure everyone has time to get them in and I have time to research them.

Second, the more I dig into the two decades after Constantine’s death the more complex and messy the story gets, especially the trials and tribulations of Athanasius. I’ve already written some of the scripts for these episodes and I want to make sure I don’t make any mistakes.

Third, my personal life has been a bit busier lately. Most notably my summer term of grad school is reaching its end which means research, final projects and assignments, etc.

Fear not. We are still on track to continue the narrative well past the reign of Constantine. I will keep you all posted on future developments. My plan currently is to have the next episode released by mid-late August.

Thank you all for your patience and continued support,


Still time to send in your Constantine questions!

Don’t wait! There’s still time to get your Constantine questions in. Let me know anything related to Constantine and his relationship with the early Church you’d like me to discuss in the upcoming episode.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano, 1524


Send in your Constantine Questions

Don’t forget to send in all your Constantine-related questions!

You can send in your questions by commenting on this post or emailing

Head from Colossus of Constatntine in Rome. Photo by Camille King via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic License.

76- Caesar Baptized

Episode Link

We conclude our coverage of the reign of the first Christian Roman Emperor. I close this episode by asking you dear listeners to please send in your questions about Constantine and the early Church.

Primary Sources

  • Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Res Gestae
  • Anna Komnene
    • Alexiad
  • Anonymous Velasianus
    • Origin of the Emperor Constantine
  • Aurelius Victor
    • On the Caesars
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Constantine
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Life of Constantine
    • Oration of Praise to Constantine
  • Eutropius
    • Brevarium
  • Eutychius of Alexandria
    • Annals
  • Festus
    • Brevarium
  • Itinerarium Burdigalense
  • John Malalas
    • Chronography
  • Pseudo-Codinus
    • Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum
  • Tabula Peutingeriana 
  • John Zonaras
    • History
  • Zosimus
    • New History

Primary Sources – Church Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Nikephoros Kallistos
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Socrates of Constantinople
  • Sozomen
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • Constantine: Dynasty, Religion, and Power in the Later Roman Empire
  • Drake, Harold
    • Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance
  • Fowden, Garth
    • “Constantine’s Porphyry Column: The Earliest Literary Allusion.” The Journal of Roman Studies, 1991, Vol. 81. 119-131
    • “The Last Days of Constantine.” The Journal of Roman Studies, 1994, Vol. 84, 146-170
  • Lenski, Noel
    • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Rev. Ed.
    • Constantine and the Cities: Imperial Authority and Civil Politics
  • Odahl, Charles
    • Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed.
  • Potter, David
    • “Constantine and the Gladiators.” Classical Quarterly 60.2 596–606 (2010) Printed in Great Britain
  • Smith, Kyle
    • Constantine and the Captive Christians of Perisa
  • Stemberger, Günter
    • Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the Fourth Century
  • Stephenson, Paul
    • Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor
The Death of Constantine by Peter Paul Rubens
One of Constantine’s “Prayer Pose” coins
Constantinople. From Charles Odahl’s Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed. 233. Routledge Press. 2010. Digital. Not all the buildings depicted date from the time of Constantine. Later additions include the Theodosians Walls, the Aqueduct of Valens, and the Church of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).
Constantinople in the Byzantine Period by C. Plakitas. 28 October 2008. Wikipedia. Licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2. Not many of the buildings depicted date from the time of Constantine.
The Column of Constantine in modern-day Istanbul. Photo by Bollweevil. 3 August 2013. Wikipedia. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Unported.
The present-day Church of Holy Peace (Hagia Irene) in Istanbul
Constantine’s Succession Plan/Tetrarchy. From Charles Odahl’s Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2nd Ed. 266. Routledge Press. 2010. Digital.
Stemmata of the Constantinian Dynasty

75- The Freak Hemorrhage

Episode Link

With Athanasius finally exiled, the Eusebians turn their attention against their other hated foe, Marcellus of Ancyra…

Death of Arius
Greek Icon of Alexander of Constantinople

Primary Sources

  • Asterius the Sophist
    • In Defense of Eusebius
  • Athanasius
    • Apology Against the Arians
    • History of the Arians 
    • Letter to Serapion on the Death of Arius
  • Council of Antioch (341)
    • Creed of Lucian (Second Creed of Antioch)
  • Marcellus of Ancyra
    • Against Asterius
  • Eusebius of Caesarea
    • Against Marcellus
    • Ecclesiastical Theology
    • Life of Constantine

Secondary Sources

  • Ayres, Lewis
    • Nicaea and its Legacy
  • Barnes, Timothy D.
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
    • “Emperors and Bishops of Constantinople (324–431).”
    • “The Exile and Recalls of Arius.”
  • Lienhard, Joseph T.
    • Contra Marcellum: Marcellus of Ancyra and Fourth-Century Theology
  • Hanson, Richard
    • The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
  • Williams, Rowan
    • Arius: History and Tradition Rev. Ed.

74- Egyptian Grain

Episode Link

The conflict between Athanasius and the Meletian-Eusebian alliance comes to a head at the Council of Tyre…

73- The Secret Alliance

Episode Link

In order to bring down Athanasius, Eusebius of Nicomedia forms a clandestine alliance with the Meletians…

Actual footage of Eusebius of Nicomedia forming an alliance with the Meletians (colorized).

Christos anesti 2021!

Christos anesti to all my Eastern listeners!

72- Athanasius: The Early Years

Episode Link

In the year 328, the young deacon Athanasius became the new bishop of Alexandria after a highly contested election. His early years on the throne of Saint Mark saw continuing conflict with the Meletians and Eusebians, as well as the composition of his most famous theological treatise…

Be sure to check out Warlords of History by Mark Pimenta!

Greek Icon of Athanasius of Alexandria

Primary Sources

Primary Sources – Ecclesiastical Historians

  • Gelasius of Caesarea
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Philostorgius of Borissus
  • Socrates of Constantinople 
  • Sozomen 
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus

Secondary Sources

  • Anatolios, Khaled
    • Athanasius
    • Athanasius: The Coherence of his Thought
  • Arnold, Duane W. H. 
    • The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria
  • Barnes, Timothy
    • Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire
    • Constantine and Eusebius
  • Brakke, David
    • Athanasius and Asceticism
  • DelCogliano, Mark
    • “The Emergence of the Pro-Nicene Alliance”. Ch. 12 of The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea ed. Kim, Young Richard
  • Gwynn, David M. 
    • Athanasius of Alexandria: Bishop, Theologian, Ascetic, Father
  • Keating, Daniel A. 
    • Athanasius and his Legacy: Trinitarian-Incarnational Soteriology and its Reception
  • Parvis, Sara
    • Marcellus of Ancyra and the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325-345
    • “The Reception of Nicaea and Homoousios to 360”. Ch. 11 of The Cambridge Companion to the Council of Nicaea ed. Kim, Young Richard
  • Tyson, John R. 
    • The Great Athanasius: An Introduction to his Life and Work
  • Weinandy, Thomas G. 
    • Athanasius: A Theological Introduction

Happy Easter 2021!

Happy Easter to all my western listeners!