Skip to content


Ascensions, depositions, and deaths of Roman Emperors in bold

Win/Spr 4 B.C. Birth of Jesus in Bethlehem

Apr 4 B.C. Death of Herod the Great

19 Aug 14 Death of Augustus, ascension of Tiberius

28 Jesus begins public ministry

Apr 30 The Crucifixion and Resurrection

Apr-May 30 Jesus spends forty days with his disciples

May 30 The Great Commission and Ascension of Christ, followed by Pentecost  

31 Martyrdom of Stephen the Deacon

31-34 Great Persecution of the Jerusalem Church

34 Conversion of Paul of Tarsus

34-37 Paul in the Arabia

37 After escaping Damascus, Paul is received by James and Peter in Jerusalem. He returns to home to Cilicia to spread the gospel

16 Mar 37 Death of Tiberius

18 Mar 37 Ascension of Gaius. He subsequently makes his friend Herod Agrippa King of Judaea

Jun 38 Anti-Jewish pogrom in Alexandria

40 Death of Pontius Pilate

24 Jan 41 Murder of Gaius

25 Jan 41 Ascension of Claudius

43 James bar Zebedee martyred by Herod Agrippa. Peter imprisoned

44 Death of Herod Agrippa

44 Agabus’ prophecy concerning the famine

46-48 Famine in Judea

48 Paul and Barnabas visit Jerusalem to provide relief for the famine. Paul’s first missionary journey

49 Claudius expels the Jews from Rome over conflicts concerning “Chrestus.” Priscilla and Aquila go to Corinth. Paul writes his Epistle to the Galatians

50 Council of Jerusalem

51-52 Paul’s second missionary journey

53-57 Paul’s third missionary journey

13 Oct 54 Claudius poisoned. Ascension of Nero

57-59 Paul in custody under the Roman Governors of Syria, Festus and later Felix

59-60 Paul’s journey to Rome

60-62 Paul under house arrest in Rome

62 James martyred. His relative Symeon bar Cleopas succeeds him

63 Peter preaches in Rome, Mark commissioned to write his Gospel for the Roman Church based on Peter’s preaching

19 Jul 64 Great Fire of Rome, Nero begins persecuting the Church, Peter later martyred

Sum 66 Judean revolt begins, Jerusalem Church flees to Pella

67/8 Martyrdom of Paul in Rome under Nero

9 Jun 68 Suicide of Nero

68-69 Year of the Four Emperors

22 Dec 69 Ascension of Vespasian

Aug 70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple by Titus

71 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai permitted by Vespasian to establish a new Jewish center at Jamnia (Yavneh)

71/2 Jerusalem Church returns.. The Jewish believers who remained in Pella later become the Judaizing Ebionites.

70s-90s The Fiscus Judaicus is imposed by the Flavian dynasty, especially by Domitian

73/4 Fall of Masada, end of the Great Judean Revolt against Rome

24 Jun 79 Death of Vespasian, ascension of Titus

13 Sep 81 Death of Titus

14 Sep 81 Ascension of Domitian

90s Beginnings of the proto-Gnostic heresies (Cerinthus, Nicolaitanism, Docetism, etc.)

Rabbinic council of Jamnia(?)

95 Clement of Rome writes to the Corinthians, The Didache is written by Jewish Christians in Western Syria

95 Domitian briefly persecutes the Church, interrogates the relatives of Jude, Exile of John to Patmos. He executes Titus F. Clemens and exiles his wife Flavia Domitilla on charges of atheism and Jewish customs

18 Sep 96 Murder of Domitian, ascension of M. Cocceius Nerva

27 Jan 98 Death of Nerva

28 Jan 98 Ascension of M. Ulpius Traianus

100 Death of John bar Zebedee, the last Apostle

107 Martyrdoms of Ignatius of Antioch in Rome and Symeon ben Cleopas in Judea under Trajan

108 Polycarp writes to Philippi. Epictetus refers to Galileans

112-13 Pliny the Younger correspondence with Trajan on Christians in Bithynia-Pontus

115-17 Kitos War in Judaea and diaspora uprising in Egypt, Cyrene, Cyprus, and Mesopotamia

7 Aug 117 Death of Trajan

11 Aug 117 Ascension of P. Aelius Hadrianus

123 Christians troubled in Athens during Hadrian’s visit. Quadratus and Aristides write apologies to him in response

124 Rescript of Hadrian to G. Minucius Fundanus, Proconsul of Asia, concerning Christians

124? Epistle to Diognetus

130 Hadrian re-founds Jerusalem as the pagan city Aelia Capitolina

130 Conversion of Justin the Philosopher of Flavia Neapolis (Shechem)

132-36 Bar Kochba revolt, Jerusalem Church persecuted for not supporting the war. Apocalypse of Peter written by Judean Christians under Jewish persecution(?)

135/6 Bar Kochba brutally defeated by G. Julius Severus. Hadrian renames Judea as Palaestina. Jewish proselyting and entrance to Jerusalem proscribed.

136 Epistle of Barnabas

136 Martyrdom of Telesphorus of Rome. Mark first gentile bishop of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)

10 Jul 138 Death of Hadrian, ascension of Antoninus Pius

140 Aristo of Pella writes against Jews. Valentinus arrives in Rome. Justin’s alleged dialogue with Trypho the Jew in Ephesus

143 Marcion writes The Contradictions

Jul 144 Marcion excommunicated at Rome by Bishop Pius and the Presbytery

150 Justin establishes a Christian Philosophical School in Rome. He gains pupils in Tatian the Assyrian and Miltiades of Asia

155 Polycarp visits Rome and brings many local faithful back from heresy. He debates the date of Easter with bishop Anicetus

23 Feb 156 Martyrdom of Polycarp in Smyrna under the Proconsul of Asia, L. Statius Quadratus. In response, Justin writes his First Apology to Antoninus Pius, his sons, and the Roman Senate

156-174 Hegesippus in Rome, writes his Memoirs

160 Martyrdom of Ptolemy and Lucius under the Prefect of Rome, Q. Lollius Urbicus. In response, Justin writes his Second Apology to Antoninus Pius.

Valentinus leaves Rome for Cyprus.

7 Mar 161 Death of Antoninus, ascension of M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aurelius Verus

165 Justin wins a debate against the Cynic philosopher Cresens. Cresens reports him to the Prefect of Rome, Q. Junius Rusticus. Justin and some of his students are subsequently martyred in Rome

165-180 Antonine Plague

166 Lucian of Samosta writes On the Passing of Peregrinus

167 Phagan and Deruvian in Britain? Melito of Sardis writes On Pascha

Jan 169 Death of Lucius Verus

170 Dionysius of Corinth corresponds with Soter of Rome

New decrees arrive in the east against Christians. Martyrdom of Bishop Publius of Athens and Sargias of Sardis

Marcus Aurelius mentions Christians in his Meditations.

172 Montanist heresy begins in Phrygia. It is answered by Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis, Apollonius of Ephesus, and an anonymous orthodox writer.

Tatian falls into heresy, founds the Encarites. He has a disciple named Rhodon who writes against Marcionism and debates the Marcionite Apelles.

175 The Thundering Legion/Miracle of the Rain; Eleutherius of Rome writes the Auctoritas against Montanus

Sum 176 During his journey through the east, Marcus Aurelius is petitioned by four apologists: Melito of Sardis, Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis, Athenagoras of Athens, and Miltiades. Athenagoras later writes a treatise On the Resurrection

Jun 177 Marcus Aurelius makes his son L. Aurelius Commodus his co-Augustus

177 Gallic Pogrom of Lugdunum and Vienne

178 Irenaeus brings letters to Eleutherius of Rome concerning Montanism. When he returns to Lugdunum he is made bishop

Tatian writes his Exhortation to the Greeks

179 Death of Maximilla

17 Mar 180 Death of Marcus Aurelius

4 Jul 180 Martyrs of Madaura

17 Jul 180 Scillitan Martyrs

180 Theophilus of Antioch writes his Apology to Autolycus

21 Apr 183 Martyrdom of the Christian senator Apollonius of Rome under the Praetorian Prefect Sextus Tigidius Perennis.

185 Origen born. Narcissus becomes bishop of Aelia Capitolina

186 Callistus of Rome sent to the mines of Sardinia by the Prefect of Rome P. Seius Fuscianus after conflicts with local Jews over debts. Marcia, Commodus’ (Christian?) mistress helps Victor of Rome secure the release of confessors from Sardinia.

Irenaeus writes Against Heresies

190 Galen of Pergamum writes about Christians. Muratorian fragment in Rome. Orthodox Rhodo debates the Marcionite Apelles. Pantaenus founds the Catechetical School of Alexandria

190-195 Quartodeciman controversy. Victor of Rome and others call synods. Irenaeus’ intervention

190-209 Serapion bishop of Antioch

31 Dec 192 Murder of Commodus

192-193 Year of the Five Emperors

9 Apr 193 Ascension of L. Septimius Severus

195 Tertullian converts to Christianity

196 Christians in Byzantium support Severus over Niger during the civil war

197 Tertullian refers to local persecutions in Africa

29 Jan 197 Severus makes his son Caracalla co-Augustus

197-199 Jews revolt against Severus during his war with Parthia

200 Clement succeeds Pantaenus. Hermias the Philosopher writes his satire on philosophers. Noëtus of Smyrna excommunicated

200-220 Theological controversies Rome

200-201 Severus pacifies Palestine

201 Flood in Edessa, Osroene, destroys a Church

202? Severus issues an edict against Jewish and Christian proselytizing?

202-03 Alexandrene pogrom under the Prefect Q. Maecius Laetus. Clement flees the city, martyrdom of Leonides of Alexandria

7 Mar 203 or 204 Persecution in Carthage under the Procurator P. Aelius Hilarianus: Martyrdoms of Perpetua, Felicity, Revocatus, Saturninus, Saturus

203 Origen becomes head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. He later castrates himself

206 Alexandrene pogrom under the Prefect Ti. Claudius Subatianus Aquila: Martyrdoms of Potamiaena and Basilides, Origen’s students

206-08 Tertullian falls into Montanism

Aut 209 Severus makes his younger son Geta Augustus

4 Feb 211 Death of Severus

19 or 26 Dec 211 Murder of Geta

212-13 Outbreak of persecution in Carthage under P. Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus

212 Origen makes Heracles his colleague. Alexander of Cappadocia succeeds Narcissus as bishop of Aelia Capitolina

214 Furnius Julianus(?) the Proconsul of Arabia Petraea sends an officer to Alexandria with letters for both bishop Demetrius and the Prefect L. Baebius Aurelius Juncinus, asking for Origen to be sent to him for an interview

215 Caracalla’s massacre of the citizens of Alexandria

215-19 Origen withdraws from Alexandria. He teaches in Caesarea Maritima under bishop Theoctistus against bishop Demetrius of Alexandria’s protests

216 Origen’s visit to Rome

217 Hippolytus becomes the first “Anti-Pope” of Rome. Schism between Callistus and Hippolytus

8 Apr 217 Murder of Caracalla

11 Apr 217 Ascension of Macrinus

16 May 218 Ascension of Elagabalus

Jun 218 Execution of Macrinus

219 Tertullian and Hippolytus attack Callistus’ edict. Origen returns to Alexandria

220 Agrippinus holds a synod in Carthage over rebaptism. Sabellius in Pentapolis. Callistus excommunicates Sabellius

222 Death of Bardaisan of Edessa

11 Mar 222 Elagabalus murdered by the Praetorian guard

14 Mar 222 Ascension of Alexander Severus

14 Oct 222 Martyrdom of Callistus. Succeeded by Urbanus

225 Origen writes On First Principles

228 Origen begins writing his Commentary on John

23 May 230 Death Urbanus bishop of Rome

21 Jul 230 Pontianus made bishop of Rome

232/33 Origen leaves Alexandria and settles in Caesarea Maritima permanently. He is ordained a presbyter by bishop Theoctistus. Demetrius excommunicates and banishes Origen at a local synod in Alexandria. The synod’s decision is sent to Rome which agrees with Demetrius that Origen’s ordination is invalid. Synods in Palestine, Greece, and Arabia side with Origen.

Demetrius appoints Origen’s colleague Heraclas as the new head of the Catechetical school

233 Origen visits Athens

Origen visits Empress Julia Mamaea in Antioch on his way back from Athens to Caesarea Maritima

Heraclas succeeds Demetrius as bishop of Alexandria

233-44 Plotinus in Alexandria

235 Origen visits Firmilian of Caesarea Eusebia

Feb 235 Alexander and Julia Mamaea murdered by soldiers, ascension of Maximinus Thrax. Beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century

235 Edict of Maximinus against Christian clergy? Exile of Pontianus and Hippolytus to the mines of Sardinia

28 Sep 235 Abdication of Pontianus

Aut 235 Martyrdom of bishops Pontianus and Hippolytus of Rome in the Sardinian mines.

21 Nov 235 Anterus becomes bishop of Rome

3 Jan 236 Death of Anterus of Rome

10 Jan 236 Fabianus becomes bishop of Rome

236 Persecution in Cappadocia under the Proconsul Serenianus; Origen writes Exhortation to Martyrdom to his patron Ambrosius

237-42 Origen meets and disciples Gregory of Neocaesarea

238 Year of the Six Emperors

Apr 238 Murder of Maximinus by soldiers

9 May 238 Ascension of Gordian III

240 Mani goes to Persia

240 Council of Lambaesis, Numidia

240-50 Origen writes against and debates Monarchians

243 Gregory of Neocaesarea returns to Cappadocia

Feb 244 Death of Gordian III, ascension of M. Julius Philippus the Arabian

244 Origen writes about Christianity to emperor Philip and his wife Otacilia Severa

246-47 Synod(s) of Arabia against Beryllus of Bostra. Origen convinces Beryllus to renounce adoptionist Christology

247 Dionysius succeeds Heraclas as Pope of Alexandria

21 Apr 248 Emperor Philip celebrates the millennial anniversary of Rome with the Secular Games

Sum 248 Anti-Christian pogrom in Alexandria

248 Origen responds to Celsus

249 Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus becomes bishop of Carthage

Sep 249 Defeat and death of Philip, ascension of G. Messius Q. Traianus Decius

Late 249 Decius publishes an edict ordering all inhabitants of the Roman Empire offer sacrifice

Jan 250 Persecution of Decius begins. Cyprian flees Carthage and Dionysius flees Alexandria . Origen arrested and tortured. Babylas of Antioch and Alexander of Jerusalem are arrested, imprisoned, tortured, and martyred

20 Jan 250 Fabianus of Rome martyred

12 Mar 250 Pionius of Smyrna martyred under the Proconsul Julius Proculus Quintilianus

Mar 250 Martyrdom of Carpus of Thyateira with Payplus, Agathodorus and Agathaniće

Nov 250 Persecution relaxed at Carthage

250-270 Cyprianic Plague

251 Paul the Hermit in Thebes?

Mar 251 Cornelius becomes bishop of Rome, Novatianist schism

23 Mar 251 Easter

Mar/Apr 251 Cyprian returns to Carthage

Apr 251 First Synod of Carthage, Novatus excommunicated

Jun 251 Death of Decius, ascension of Trebonianus Gallus

Jul 251 Novatian’s envoys arrive in Carthage

Oct 251 Cornelius excommunicates Novatian

252/253 Demetrian of Antioch holds a local synod which sides with Cornelius against Novatian

Apr 252 Persecution of Gallus? Plague in Carthage

May 252 Second Synod of Carthage. Lapsed re-admitted. Fortunatus and the Novatianist Maximus rival bishops to Cyprian

Jun 253 Exile and death of Cornelius in Civita Vecchia under Gallus

25 Jun 253 Lucius becomes bishop of Rome

Aug 253 Death of Gallus, ascension of M. Aemilius Aemilianus

Sep 253 Third Synod of Carthage. Death of Aemilianus, ascension of P. Licinius Valerianus and his son P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus

253-254 Sasanian occupation of Antioch, bishop Demetrian and other Romans deported to Persia

254 Origen dies of his wounds in Tyre

5 Mar 254 Death of bishop Lucius of Rome

12 May 254 Stephanus becomes bishop of Rome

May 254 Fourth Synod of Carthage. Apostate Spanish bishops. Marcian of Arles issue in Gaul

255-57 Rebaptism controversy

255 Fifth Synod of Carthage, deals with Baptism

256 Persians sack of Dura Europos

Spr/Aut 256 Sixth and Seventh synods of Carthage deal with baptism

257-260 Valerian Persecution; Martyrdom of Novatian of Rome(?)

Jul 257 Persecution of Valerian begins. Intern of Cyprian

Aug 258 Second edict of Valerian and the Senate against Christians

2 Aug 257 Death of Stephanus, Xystus II succeeds him

1 Aug 258 Three hundred martyred in Utica, Africa (Massa Candida)

6 Aug 258 Martyrdom of Xystus II of Rome and his four deacons

10 Aug 258 Martyrdom of Laurence of Rome

14 Sep 258 Martyrdom of Cyprian under the Proconsul Galerius Maximus

15 Jan 259 Fructuosus of Tarragona, Hispania, and his deacons Augurius and Eulogius are martyred under the governor Aemilianus

9 May 258 Martyrdom of Marianus and Jacobus the Confessors in Lambaesis, Numidia

23 May 259 Anti-Christian pogrom in Carthage

259 Bishop of Hippo martyred

Jun 260 Valerian captured by the Sasanians, sole rule of his son Gallienus

Sum 260 Gallienus’ Edict of Tolerance

22 Jul 260 Dionysius becomes bishop of Rome

9 Aug 260 Gallienus allows Christians to regain their cemeteries

260-63 Dionysius of Rome and Dionysius of Alexandria debate modalism

261 Death of Demetrian in Persia. Paul of Samosata made bishop of Antioch

261/62 Martyrdom of Marinus of Caesarea Maritima under the Macrianii usurpers

262 Gallienus defeats the Macrianii. He sends his letter to the bishops of Egypt

264 Pope Dionysius of Alexandria dies, he is succeeded by Maximus.

First Council of Antioch on Paul of Samosata

268 Second Council of Antioch condemns Paul of Samosata

Aut 268 Murder of Gallienus, ascension of M. Aurelius Claudius

26 Dec 268 Death of Dionysius of Rome

14 Feb 268 Martyrdom of Valentine of Rome?

3 Jan 269 Felix becomes bishop of Rome

Sep 270 Death of Claudius, ascension of L. Domitius Aurelianus

270 Antony in Egypt

272 Church of Antioch appeals to Aurelian to arbitrate in Paul’s refusal to give up Church property. Aurelian sides against Paul

30 Dec 274 Death of Felix of Rome

4 Jan 275 Eutychianus becomes bishop of Rome

Sum/Aut 275 Aurelian threatens persecution but dies before he can enforce it

Sep 275 Death of Aurelian

Dec 275-Jul 276 Reign of Tacitus

Jul 276-Sep 276 Reign of Florianus

Jul 276 Ascension of M. Aurelius Probus

277 Mani executed

282 Death of Pope Maximus of Alexandria, succeeded by Theonas

Oct 282 Probus murdered by soldiers

Sep 282-Aug 283 Reign of Carus

Spr 283-Sep 285 Reign of Carinus

Aug 283-Nov 284 Reign of Numerian

7 Dec 283 Death of Eutychianus of Rome

17 Dec 283 Gaius becomes bishop of Rome

20 Nov 284 Ascension of G. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus

285 Papa bar Gaggai first archbishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, controversy ensues

Oct 285 Diocletian makes Maximian his Caesar

1 Apr 286 Diocletian makes Maximian Augustus of the West

290 Persecution under Shah Bahram II

290s Lactantius a pupil of Arnobius of Sicca

1 Mar 293 Diocletian creates the Tetrarchy: Constantius Caesar in the West under Maximian and Galerius Caesar in the East under Diocletian

295 Lactantius summoned to Nicomedia to teach Latin rhetoric

10 Mar 295 Martyrdom of Maximilianus by the Proconsul of Africa for his refusal to be conscripted into the Roman army

22 Apr 296 Death of Bishop Gaius of Rome

30 Jun 296 Marcellinus becomes bishop of Rome

30 Oct 298 Martyrdom of Marcellus in Tingi for his refusal of military service

299 Christians purged from the army and government because of failed haruspices in Antioch

300 Death of Pope Theonas of Alexandria, succeeded by Peter

300 David of Basra goes to Nisibis. Porphyry writes his work against Christians

301 Gregory the Illuminator converts King Tiridates III of Armenia

31 Mar 302 Diocletian’s edict against the Manichees

Aut 302 Romanus the Deacon of Caesarea arrested in Antioch

Jan/Feb 303 Diocletian consults the Oracle of Apollo at Didyma who blames Christians for hindering oracles. The senior Augustus is finally convinced to issue an anti-Christian edict

Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: